The NFL recently entered into a data deal with Sportradar. Is a quarterback-focused in-game wager based on a new statistic combining real-time passing efficiency in the red zone, throwing velocity and foot speed coming soon?
. The pecuniary pie will be larger for unionized players as well.
Sports leagues have long been innovation leaders. Just like high-frequency trading on Wall Street involving complicated financial vehicles such as derivatives and futures, the merger between advanced stats and technology could result in some creative hybrids. The case was resolved in the fantasy sports company’s favor, but considered only the right to use m88 player names and basic performance statistics, not advanced stats gleaned from ultra-high-tech cameras capturing every swing, pitch and catch on the diamond. Even the NFL, chief among the big four pro leagues to be most tethered to their historical anti-gambling position, seems well-positioned. It will be coming soon to your smartphone, tablet and laptop.
“Those NBA cameras are absolutely underutilized,” Tywan Martin, an assistant professor of sport communications at the University of Miami, told ESPN Chalk. It is largely the same offerings William Barry Furlong wrote about in his classic 1977 New York Times piece “Of Lines, Point Spreads, and Middles.” Make no mistake though: Point spreads are popular among bettors and books. And both the WTA and ATP tennis tours have had real-time data deals for years.
While it seems revolutionary in the U.S., live wagering and low-limit, high-volume options are the norm in Europe.
“The regulated U.S. They’ve played a critical role in the lack of gambling innovation. A decision in the latest iteration of the case is expected later this month.
After the New Jersey case concludes, look for the near future to arrive quickly. and Europe in terms of online sports gambling innovation [by] at least five years,” estimated Mark Locke, CEO of Sport Integrity Monitor, a London-based technology and betting data company.
With technological advances, a considerable amount of online and mobile sports gambling — around 80 percent in the U.K., according to Locke — now occurs in-game. You know, ‘I think he’s going to make a pass instead of take the shot.’ And you’ll be able to instantly move money back and forth. He pointed to high-profile litigation involving a fantasy sports operator and Major League Baseball’s digital media arm. So does Mark Cuban, who said the league will “charge the casinos for information sources [and] video sources” and cryptically told Bleacher Report’s Jared Zwerling that “… They help balance the action and allow games involving heavy favorites to remain attractive. “Just think if the NBA had a smartphone app that allowed small bets or real-time fantasy picks to be made based on [camera-generated data]. The data captured are utilized by the league and among individual teams in a variety of ways — scouting, injury prevention and game strategy are just a few examples. When Stephen Curry takes the floor Tuesday night in Game 3 of the NBA Finals, every facet of his game will be tracked by six strategically placed high-tech cameras in the rafters of Cleveland’s Quicken Loans Arena. Sports leagues, broadcasters and advertisers know this. How much separation did he get from Matthew Dellavedova on that pick-and-roll at the top of the key during the Warriors’ first offensive sequence of the third quarter? That can be tracked too.
It is just the tip of the terabyte-rich iceberg of data collected by the cutting-edge SportVU cameras recently installed in all 29 NBA arenas.
Owned by Chicago-based STATS, the SportVU cameras owe their origin to a missile defense system, but their motion-tracking capabilities have been adapted for basketball. Roger Goodell was recently asked about the league’s long-held position.
“[I]f changes happen, we’ll be prepared for those,” Goodell foreshadowed.
The once-nascent technology has arrived, and the sports leagues appear ready to activate it. Instead of picking a fantasy team based on newspaper-era box score statistics, any number of advanced analytics could be adopted for consumers.
A fantasy baseball contest based on video-enhanced WAR? A dynamic in-game basketball wager predicated on some new version of PER? A three-player parlay based on forehand RPM and point-of-contact court position at Wimbledon? Acronym-friendly new age stats permeate across sports.
On the real-time data front, gaming-leaning consumers could place a live bet on whether the Tampa Bay Lightning score during a power play, whether Nelson Cruz gets a hit in his current at-bat or whether Peyton Manning converts this third-down pass. as technology gets better, we will invent new things.” Wizards owner Ted Leonsis concurred in a recent SI.com interview: “People are now going to start to make wagers in a real-time way. But they are almost exclusively done pregame, meaning some gamblers become detached consumers during the two- to three-hour lifespan of the underlying game.
The lack of innovation is easy to spot.
“Point spreads may be the current model, but betting using advanced real-time data is the future,” Grady told ESPN Chalk.
Compared with those in the United States, how different are the gaming options elsewhere?
“Not even close,” explained Martin in a recent phone interview. Another courtroom dispute about the proprietary nature of advanced stats is likely.
The other constraint is the still-pending legal case involving New Jersey’s quest to offer Vegas-style sports gambling at the state’s casinos and racetracks. “When I bring up the topic of sports gambling to international students, they laugh at our system here. sports gambling market is behind the U.K. The issue is that the [sports] leagues have stymied development. Two years ago, Grantland’s Zach Lowe offered up ” Seven Ways the NBA’s New Camera System Can Change the Future of Basketball.”
But there is eighth way, and it involves gambling. “Next-generation stats are what the younger demographics are using. Even a 5 percent increase in viewership gained from next-gen gambling options offered in a direct-to-consumer way will be profound. All in-game, as it happens.
“The options are unlimited,” said John Grady, an associate professor of sport and entertainment management at the University of South Carolina. New Jersey’s efforts have been successfully repelled by the four major professional sports leagues and the NCAA over the course of three years of litigation. How far did Curry run during the game? That’s easy to pinpoint. So it’s better to get in front of it.”
It’s not just the NBA, though; other leagues will be ready too. Why would ” inevitable” sports gambling be any different? The NBA certainly seems optimistic about the prospects. Money is to be made if they were to allow it.”
A full synergy between advanced stats and gaming options has constraints, however.
“The law always lags behind technology, especially in digital rights and gambling issues,” said Grady. If sports leagues (www.thai-m88.com) want to find new ways to engage with fans earlier, they will need to engage them creatively.”
Whether at a brick-and-mortar casino in Nevada or with a local bookie, traditional sports gambling in the United States is dominated by point spreads, money lines and totals. Major League Baseball unveiled its own motion-tracking system earlier this year. The league would see increased viewership and consumer engagement, especially in terms of the in-arena experience.”
NBA commissioner Adam Silver seems particularly bullish on the potential of real-time data and in-game betting
It is very much popular in United Kingdom because of the massive popularity of the English Premier League in England. There is common perception that if the place is a neutral place for both teams, then it could be a competition between teams and be difficult to predict. This will have big influence on the outcome of the result.
Also, the punter or bettor can also use the Internet for more material about the condition of the players and the support that comes from the local audience. On the contrary if the venue turns out to be home venue for one of the teams, then they had distinct advantage over the other team, because of their support from the local audience. For the persons involved in m88 betting over football game, the first thing that must be taken into consideration the fitness levels of key players playing in the game. A trainer provides not only technical knowledge and skills of strategy, but also acts as the motivator for the group. By Appropriate methods of mental conditioning, the coach brings a positive attitude for players who work under him.
Soccer (or football match) has a huge following across the world. For the reason that of huge fan base, betting on Football game has become very common and has gain popularity over the passage of time. Also, Football match betting tips, are readily visible on web space, one can also see Web pages that has a number of experts able to predict the outcome of a particular match. The bettor may use these football betting tips before making a conclusion about how to consider a bet on a football game.
. If some key players are injured, then they will not be getting any chance in playing eleven. The football bettor must consider this information before; he bets his money over a particular team. Successful coaches have played in important role in deciding the fate of many teams. So, what are the things that should be taken into consideration while betting? Betting on football match requires a lot of basic research on the form of the team members or players, their playing status and fitness level.
The next thing the bookie or bettor has to study the venue for the football match. So, they are the key factors which influence the outcome of the game. Bookies or bettors can get information about the fitness of the players by searching online through some fitness related Web sites or news web sites (www.hhht888.com).
Besides these factors, the coaches of the football teams and their previous records in the managing various teams also play an important role, and bettors should pay due attention to them. If the player returns from injury then there are chances that it may not play as per his desired potential or in the same form
Another 15% of individuals have gambled once within the past month. There are head-to-head bets, as well as totalizators, progressive parlays and if bets which have each grown in popularity.
While many of the gamblers within the United States are full-grown adults, there are many college students who take part in the activity as well. An additional 80% of high school students bet as well, though many are not legal fun88 gambling and is often amongst friends. The Super Bowl and NCAA March Madness tournament are two of the largest payouts in the United States.
As the niche of sports betting continues to rise in worldwide popularity, there appears to be no limit to the amount of money and effort put into the interest. Straight bets, or those that simply choose the winner, propositional bets, parlays, and future wagers are all among the top etting types. Twenty-five percent of males between 14-22 have placed a wager every month, with the NFL being the largest amongst the age group. And 3% had even placed wagers within the last day. The betting types all depended upon the individual, and spanned every sport from baseball to football, basketball to hockey, with horse racing being one of the most popular to bet on.
The infographic showed that several kinds of bets are placed most often. Top Betting Action has created a new infographic that is now showing just how the growth of sports betting (www.fun88no1.com) is thriving. The act of placing wagers on sporting outcomes has been popular for some time amongst friends and work betting pools, however, the growth in casinos and online has grown to huge unprecedented levels.
The American Gaming Association stated “Overall, Nevada’s legal sports wagering represents less than 1% of all sports betting nationwide. 19 by Top Betting Action detailed that information showing that college students are betting regularly on sporting events.. Nearly 67% of college students have bet in one way or another on sports. A tally of 44% of all 12th grade males have wagered at least once on sports.
Please click the SUBSCRIBE button at the top to receive email updates of new articles from Tomica Bonner.
Other than poker, sports gambling is the No. 1 sport in the United States. Based on the infographic, 65% of all Americans have gambled on sports at least once, while 30% have gambled on sports within the last year. In 2011, $2.88 billion was legally wagered in Nevada’s sports books; the National Gambling Impact Study Commission (NGISC) estimated that illegal wagers are as much as $380 billion annually.”
Let’s dominate “the man” and take some money from these online sportsbooks, poker rooms and casinos!
Winning is always more fun that losing. Totals allow bettors to wager on something besides the winner of the game. If you want to support us, be sure to use our links and bonus codes when signing up with different sportsbooks, poker rooms, casinos and other services. That means when you click on them, and sign up, we get a small commission. We know who you can trust and who you can’t trust.
We hope you enjoy Betting Blogger and continue to come back, day after day. These are meant to be fun yet informativ
Sign up for our weekly email newsletter. We have done and seen it all. If you are participating in sports betting then it is even more important to have fun the good old-fashioned way by winning your bets. Thanks for your support in keeping this site the best free resource about betting on the web.
We have made millions of dollars in our lives betting. We have bet at nearly every sportsbook. This is how we keep this website free and operating. Online gambling and betting is becoming huge this day and age and information is spread all over the place. That’s 15 years of experience per person. It’s simple. We have played poker at all of the online sites. This will happen EVERY WEEK and will contain the juicy information such as exclusive bonuses and tips.
If you like free picks, sign up for our daily free picks email. There are many aspects to look into when considering betting on a Major League Baseba
Links found on Betting Blogger are affiliate links. Totals betting deals with the total amount of runs scored in a game. Betting Blogger pulls this information together to create the ultimate betting resource site online.
Welcome to Betting Blogger where our goal is simple: TO HELP YOU KNOW HOW AND WHERE TO BET!
So why would you want to listen to us? We are a team of individuals who have lived and breathed the betting industry since 2001. This is #1. I am going to give you a few strategies to consider when you bet on sporting events. Why Us?
Top 3 Betting Sites
About Betting Blogger
So that’s why you should follow Betting Blogger. What is the best way to stay up to date with us?
We strive to bring you nothing but the best tips, strategy, bonuses, promotions and free information from the world of “betting”. We have relationships with many of the key operators and can HELP YOU GET THE BEST DEALS at these sites as well.. One pick every day, no analysis, just a pick.
Social Media: Facebook Page | Twitter Account
One of the favorite bets of avid Major League Baseball fans is totals
In exchange for a lesser payout, field bettors gain the advantages of having more than one entrant that can win for them. Open tennis tournament, a reasonable money line would require Serena bettors to risk $400 to win $100 while a $100 bet on her opponent would win $360.
As you can see, there’s much more to betting than simply totals and sides, especially when it comes to gambling on non-team sports.
Betting sides and totals on major sports like baseball, basketball and football are the most common wagers available everywhere.
What team will win the coin toss
Furthermore, a tennis match would be considered a tournament-style head-to-head matchup since the competitors involved directly play against each other in the event. These are not fixed and are adjusted by sportsbooks several times leading up to the event and are sometimes released months before an event.
What will be the exact margin of victory
What player will score the game’s first touchdown
The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting far in advance of when the event takes place. The same holds true for major team sports like NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball. However, many sportsbooks also offer proposition bets (or props short) for gambling on non-team sports like golf, tennis, boxing and auto racing – including NASCAR – due to their growing popularity.
For non-team sports like golf, boxing, tennis and NASCAR, “Matchup Betting” offers an alternative to simply betting on the event’s winner.
Proposition bets for non-team sports are not limited to “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” but those are the primary ways to wager on them.
Every $400 bet on Serena nets a $100 profit if she wins (plus the return of the $400 risked). Props, also known as exotic wagers, are also extremely popular on high-profile team sporting events like the Super Bowl in Las Vegas . Unlike team sports such as football, non-team sports also have multiple events over the course of a year, so “Betting to Win” obviously happens much more frequently than a once a year NFL futures bet on the Super Bowl winner does. A NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason; but by midseason, their odds might decrease to 10/1 if they turn out to be legitimate championship contenders. Betting to Win
For example, if Serena Williams faced an overmatched opponent in the U.S.
It is very important to note that not all the competitors in an event may be listed, so another betting option is on the “field” which includes all other competitors not listed. If her opponent pulls off the upset, $100 bet on the underdog would profit $360 (plus the return of the $100 risked). Since golf and NASCAR both have pre-qualifying, not everybody makes the cut to the final day of competition, and these group matchups require all individuals to qualify in order to be eligible for action. For more information on how this works, be sure to check out How to Read the Money Line.
Before every major event in non-team sports like golf, tennis and auto racing, futures are set by oddsmakers. “Matchup Betting” generally involves an individual going up against another individual in a head-to-head event, such as a tennis match, and the odds are determined using the money line.
An example with team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts. These artificial matchups are also fake in the sense that bookmakers are the ones creating them – solely for betting purposes – and different books will often offer different matchups. The odds on a “field” bet are typically comparable to a bet on the favorite in order to protect sportsbooks from taking a big hit if a major upset occurs. An artificial head-to-head matchup involves competitors in an event like a golf tournament or auto race who are indirectly competing against each other since in reality they are competing against everybody in the field, not just one other competitor. The two main ways of wagering on non-team sports are “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” which pits an individual against another individual or a group of individuals. Other examples of props for non-team sports include what racing team will finish highest in a particular NASCAR race (Chevy, Ford or Dodge) or how many rounds will the fight between Mike Tyson and Kevin McBride last (Over/Under 8.5 rounds). For example, you can bet on:
Here’s how the money line would be listed: Serena Williams -400 / #102 Ranked Opponent +360. So be aware of all your wagering options and don’t miss out on the excitement non-team sports have to offer with prop betting!
“Betting to Win” an outcome event like The Masters is the most common way to wager on individuals competing for a particular non-team title.
Group matchups are another way “matchup betting” is used which is particularly popular in golf and auto racing events like NASCAR, where you can select whether a leading competitor or a few other lesser competitors will finisher higher amongst the group, with the odds again based on money lines. For example, betting on the 2006 Masters golf tournament now might get you much better value on Tiger Woods, who may be 10/1 at this moment but dip to 6/1 closer to the event if he is on a roll. The Imperial Palace Casino’s sportsbook is well-known for the enormous number of prop bets offered
Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
This makes little sense.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. . Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
Update note:Dr. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
Less Than Zero
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
AIDS now had a face.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
Gateway to the West
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
But, it doesn’t end there.
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Memory Elvin Lewis
Dr. The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. . .
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
Mr. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet . 1952-1953).
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
The Road to Zero
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
Dr. . Louis.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. . Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). It was so unusual at the time .
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
From a front-line perspective
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role
Because of their performance they … Indian cricket team is No.1 cricket team in the ICC Test rankings.
Tags: India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Live Streaming, Watch India Vs S
Posts relating to Sportsbetting (0-1 of 1) ( 0.004 seconds )
India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Live Streaming, India Vs Sri Lanka 1st T20 Match Live Score
By: Lucy Hanes | Dec 9th 2009 – The First T20 Match between India and Sri Lanka is going to happen on 09, December, 2009 at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur. They reached the top position after defeating Sri Lanka team by an innings and 24 runs
This is often a vital skill in enhancing your poker game. If you fancy a flutter you will get your fix. There aren’t many players who claim eternal loyalty to some gaming site and therefore the active gaming cycle on the particular site can vary from weeks to a few months. Locate a good home game or look
for a local card room if at all possible and go play a couple of times per month if you’re able to. The administration of the site is going to be processed every day causing you to be enough time to concentrate on your online marketing strategy.. This skill isn’t attainable in internet poker room play; you need to be sitting over the table out of your opponents to achieve this expertise. Most poker pros will agree the psychology of poker is an extremely important a part of the things they’re doing well. Customer retention is with you. The program of these sites happen to be produced by mainly several specialist developers plus they all try to provide you with as enjoyable and realistic an event as you possibly can that you should play casino poker online. Creativity in marketing and customer retention is crucial in the current competitive online entertainment business and something is only able to concentrate on the right players by understanding the players themselves.
casino and poker online are a good spot to play if you have use of a card room in your town I’d recommend spent some play at live games. The majority of the well-known casino and poker online sites are run by reputable companies who’ve been within the gaming niche for quite a long time.
casino and poker online need constant attention which is essential that you offer good customer care out of all languages of the target markets. You now are becoming to the facets of poker that cope with playing another players and not simply them you’re dealt.
It usually takes a few weeks to possess your casino and poker online gaming site fully operational an internet-based, after which it’s your decision they are driving traffic towards your website. Play casino and poker online to determine more hands and make use of the ease of a web-based poker site whenever you cannot get free from the home or simply possess a very little time to experience.
Within the recent game playing industry events, which I joined, I overheard a discussion between two guys and one of them instructed another that using a casino website is a means to make quick money online. You may either to setup and manage your personal customer care team otherwise allow the operator handle this for you personally.
The immediacy from the internet has exposed a brave “new world “for gambler. Playing inside a live game is very totally different from playing on-line poker. It is therefore vital that you stabilize your casino and poker online have fun with real live games to operate in your skills. In on-line poker you won’t ever need to be in person together with your opponent whereby live games you can observe your attacker so that you get the chance to determine any tells that they’re going to exhibit
H1B visa holders can travel in and out of the United States, when it has been granted by a United States Consulate. H1B transfers are unlimited. Using the Approval Notice, the applicant may obtain the H1 visa from the US Consulate. Individuals can not apply for an H1B visa. 2 year Diploma) plus six years work experience.
A license to practice in the chosen occupation (if such a license is required to practice).
List of documents required for H1B Visa
H1B Visa Eligibility
H1B Visa Transfer
Once the application for H1B Visa has been submitted to USCIS(United States Citizenship and Immigration Service) will be reviewed for completeness. H1B holder can buy or sell property in USA.
Current H1B Visa holders can transfer their visa and start work for a new employer once H1B transfer petition is submitted to the USCIS by the new sponsor company. The H-1B visa covers many fields of work ranging from architecture and engineering to health and medicine. This visa allows a foreign national to be sponsored by a US Company for a period of six years and entitles your spouse (husband/wife) and children to accompany you and live in United States of America. Certain H1B holders may be eligible to extend their H1B status beyond the six year limit under AC21 guidelines. Want to live and work in the United States legally? The H1B visa might be the perfect visa for you. The attached documents will be checked along with the application. If the application is denied, the USCIS will notify in writing the reason for rejection.
In case of non approval of the H1B transfer, the original H1B visa will be lost. One of the main benefits of the H1B visa is that it is a ‘dual intent’ visa – you can apply for a Green Card (Legal Permanent Residency).
H1B visas are subject to annual numerical limits, currently 65,000 for Fiscal Year 2011. Spouses and unmarried children under the age of 21 may receive visas as well. If all the requirements are met, USCIS will send an approval notice to the US employer and approval notice will be sent. Hence before entering into a new job, it is always better to complete the visa transfer.. During the H1B transfer procedure, the following documents may be required:
Last 3 months pay slips.
H1B approval documents.
Copies of I-94 records.
Copy of Social Security Card.
Copy of existing valid visa
Copy of all your Diploma/Degrees.
A letter from the Current Employer
Offer letter form the company in United States
Resume of the applicant
Sample Company projects documents and some documents describing what the company does
Approval Notice (form I 797) of the original petition
Employment Verification letter
6 Months Bank Statements
Persons who hold a four year college degree or higher educational degree, or the equivalent in work experience.
12 years work experience, OR a mix of further education (e.g
The majority of the well-known casino and poker online sites are run by reputable companies who’ve been within the gaming niche for quite a long time.
The immediacy from the internet has exposed a brave “new world “for gambler.
casino and poker online are a good spot to play if you have use of a card room in your town I’d recommend spent some play at live games. In on-line poker you won’t ever need to be in person together with your opponent whereby live games you can observe your attacker so that you get the chance to determine any tells that they’re going to exhibit. If you fancy a flutter you will get your fix. Playing inside a live game is very totally different from playing on-line poker. It is therefore vital that you stabilize your casino and poker online have fun with real live games to operate in your skills. This is often a vital skill in enhancing your poker game. This skill isn’t attainable in internet poker room play; you need to be sitting over the table out of your opponents to achieve this expertise. Most poker pros will agree the psychology of poker is an extremely important a part of the things they’re doing well. The administration of the site is going to be processed every day causing you to be enough time to concentrate on your online marketing strategy.. The program of these sites happen to be produced by mainly several specialist developers plus they all try to provide you with as enjoyable and realistic an event as you possibly can that you should play casino poker online. You now are becoming to the facets of poker that cope with playing another players and not simply them you’re dealt. Play casino and poker online to determine more hands and make use of the ease of a web-based poker site whenever you cannot get free from the home or simply possess a very little time to experience.
casino and poker online need constant attention which is essential that you offer good customer care out of all languages of the target markets. There aren’t many players who claim eternal loyalty to some gaming site and therefore the active gaming cycle on the particular site can vary from weeks to a few months. You may either to setup and manage your personal customer care team otherwise allow the operator handle this for you personally.
Within the recent game playing industry events, which I joined, I overheard a discussion between two guys and one of them instructed another that using a casino website is a means to make quick money online. Locate a good home game or look
for a local card room if at all possible and go play a couple of times per month if you’re able to. Creativity in marketing and customer retention is crucial in the current competitive online entertainment business and something is only able to concentrate on the right players by understanding the players themselves. Customer retention is with you.
It usually takes a few weeks to possess your casino and poker online gaming site fully operational an internet-based, after which it’s your decision they are driving traffic towards your website
It could provide great insight as to predicting what will occur.
Information and doing your homework is important, but you don’t want to full into the trap of information overload. Speaking of the long run, this is what you should be focused on. Thus when you are doing well, you will still be focused and when you aren’t doing so well you won’t be thinking that it’s the end of the world. Hopefully this kind of thinking will keep you grounded. It’s all about accumulating winnings. It doesn’t matter if it is pretty or not.
Sports betting is an easy way to make a tough living. Upsets are always going to happen but see when it makes the most sense when to go for that and when not to. You will be better off for doing so in the long run.
Look for value bets. You can’t let the highs and lows affect you too much.
In the case of team sports, injuries are important. It is only going to place you in a difficult position and as much as you might think it won’t be, your decision making ability is going to be compromised. Over time, you will learn what it should be that you should be paying attention to.
Because of this point, it is probably better if you steer clear from any matches involving the teams that you like. This means that when you place your bets you need to be thinking clearly and concisely. What is the point of drowning yourself in statistics and research for what you could just as easily decided with a flip of the coin? So you need to sift through it all and just take the morsels here and there which are really important and make a difference. On the flip side, you shouldn’t bet against a team because someone you don’t like roots for that team. Travel is a factor such as when East Coast sides travel to the West Coast and vice versa. You want to know who trained and who didn’t. Anything less than this and it is going to be a disaster. Business is business and you need to be concentrating on who is going to win regardless of who likes and who doesn’t like which team.. You don’t want to lose money just because you weren’t on top of your game.
The most important thing is that you need to take emotion out of the equation. If you are going to do it you need to do it properly and master it, it means you are completely organized and focused. So if you suffer a bad break along the way, just remember it goes with the territory. The weather conditions also make a difference as they do in horse racing. For instance, if you are pretty certain that a side is going to win and they are getting good odds for this than take this. Also look into how sides perform the week after doing certain travel. So do yourself a favor and swear off them. You shouldn’t favor a team because they are the team your best friend supports