The next generation of gambling technology

The NFL recently entered into a data deal with Sportradar. Is a quarterback-focused in-game wager based on a new statistic combining real-time passing efficiency in the red zone, throwing velocity and foot speed coming soon?

. The pecuniary pie will be larger for unionized players as well.

Sports leagues have long been innovation leaders. Just like high-frequency trading on Wall Street involving complicated financial vehicles such as derivatives and futures, the merger between advanced stats and technology could result in some creative hybrids. The case was resolved in the fantasy sports company’s favor, but considered only the right to use m88 player names and basic performance statistics, not advanced stats gleaned from ultra-high-tech cameras capturing every swing, pitch and catch on the diamond. Even the NFL, chief among the big four pro leagues to be most tethered to their historical anti-gambling position, seems well-positioned. It will be coming soon to your smartphone, tablet and laptop.

“Those NBA cameras are absolutely underutilized,” Tywan Martin, an assistant professor of sport communications at the University of Miami, told ESPN Chalk. It is largely the same offerings William Barry Furlong wrote about in his classic 1977 New York Times piece “Of Lines, Point Spreads, and Middles.” Make no mistake though: Point spreads are popular among bettors and books. And both the WTA and ATP tennis tours have had real-time data deals for years.

While it seems revolutionary in the U.S., live wagering and low-limit, high-volume options are the norm in Europe.

“The regulated U.S. They’ve played a critical role in the lack of gambling innovation. A decision in the latest iteration of the case is expected later this month.

After the New Jersey case concludes, look for the near future to arrive quickly. and Europe in terms of online sports gambling innovation [by] at least five years,” estimated Mark Locke, CEO of Sport Integrity Monitor, a London-based technology and betting data company.

With technological advances, a considerable amount of online and mobile sports gambling — around 80 percent in the U.K., according to Locke — now occurs in-game. You know, ‘I think he’s going to make a pass instead of take the shot.’ And you’ll be able to instantly move money back and forth. He pointed to high-profile litigation involving a fantasy sports operator and Major League Baseball’s digital media arm. So does Mark Cuban, who said the league will “charge the casinos for information sources [and] video sources” and cryptically told Bleacher Report’s Jared Zwerling that “… They help balance the action and allow games involving heavy favorites to remain attractive. “Just think if the NBA had a smartphone app that allowed small bets or real-time fantasy picks to be made based on [camera-generated data]. The data captured are utilized by the league and among individual teams in a variety of ways — scouting, injury prevention and game strategy are just a few examples. When Stephen Curry takes the floor Tuesday night in Game 3 of the NBA Finals, every facet of his game will be tracked by six strategically placed high-tech cameras in the rafters of Cleveland’s Quicken Loans Arena. Sports leagues, broadcasters and advertisers know this. How much separation did he get from Matthew Dellavedova on that pick-and-roll at the top of the key during the Warriors’ first offensive sequence of the third quarter? That can be tracked too.

It is just the tip of the terabyte-rich iceberg of data collected by the cutting-edge SportVU cameras recently installed in all 29 NBA arenas.

Owned by Chicago-based STATS, the SportVU cameras owe their origin to a missile defense system, but their motion-tracking capabilities have been adapted for basketball. Roger Goodell was recently asked about the league’s long-held position.

“[I]f changes happen, we’ll be prepared for those,” Goodell foreshadowed.

The once-nascent technology has arrived, and the sports leagues appear ready to activate it. Instead of picking a fantasy team based on newspaper-era box score statistics, any number of advanced analytics could be adopted for consumers.

A fantasy baseball contest based on video-enhanced WAR? A dynamic in-game basketball wager predicated on some new version of PER? A three-player parlay based on forehand RPM and point-of-contact court position at Wimbledon? Acronym-friendly new age stats permeate across sports.

On the real-time data front, gaming-leaning consumers could place a live bet on whether the Tampa Bay Lightning score during a power play, whether Nelson Cruz gets a hit in his current at-bat or whether Peyton Manning converts this third-down pass. as technology gets better, we will invent new things.” Wizards owner Ted Leonsis concurred in a recent SI.com interview: “People are now going to start to make wagers in a real-time way. But they are almost exclusively done pregame, meaning some gamblers become detached consumers during the two- to three-hour lifespan of the underlying game.

The lack of innovation is easy to spot.

“Point spreads may be the current model, but betting using advanced real-time data is the future,” Grady told ESPN Chalk.

Compared with those in the United States, how different are the gaming options elsewhere?

“Not even close,” explained Martin in a recent phone interview. Another courtroom dispute about the proprietary nature of advanced stats is likely.

The other constraint is the still-pending legal case involving New Jersey’s quest to offer Vegas-style sports gambling at the state’s casinos and racetracks. “When I bring up the topic of sports gambling to international students, they laugh at our system here. sports gambling market is behind the U.K. The issue is that the [sports] leagues have stymied development. Two years ago, Grantland’s Zach Lowe offered up ” Seven Ways the NBA’s New Camera System Can Change the Future of Basketball.”

But there is eighth way, and it involves gambling. “Next-generation stats are what the younger demographics are using. Even a 5 percent increase in viewership gained from next-gen gambling options offered in a direct-to-consumer way will be profound. All in-game, as it happens.

“The options are unlimited,” said John Grady, an associate professor of sport and entertainment management at the University of South Carolina. New Jersey’s efforts have been successfully repelled by the four major professional sports leagues and the NCAA over the course of three years of litigation. How far did Curry run during the game? That’s easy to pinpoint. So it’s better to get in front of it.”

It’s not just the NBA, though; other leagues will be ready too. Why would ” inevitable” sports gambling be any different? The NBA certainly seems optimistic about the prospects. Money is to be made if they were to allow it.”

A full synergy between advanced stats and gaming options has constraints, however.

“The law always lags behind technology, especially in digital rights and gambling issues,” said Grady. If sports leagues (www.thai-m88.com) want to find new ways to engage with fans earlier, they will need to engage them creatively.”

Whether at a brick-and-mortar casino in Nevada or with a local bookie, traditional sports gambling in the United States is dominated by point spreads, money lines and totals. Major League Baseball unveiled its own motion-tracking system earlier this year. The league would see increased viewership and consumer engagement, especially in terms of the in-arena experience.”

NBA commissioner Adam Silver seems particularly bullish on the potential of real-time data and in-game betting

Tips for Betting On Football Match

It is very much popular in United Kingdom because of the massive popularity of the English Premier League in England. There is common perception that if the place is a neutral place for both teams, then it could be a competition between teams and be difficult to predict. This will have big influence on the outcome of the result.

Also, the punter or bettor can also use the Internet for more material about the condition of the players and the support that comes from the local audience. On the contrary if the venue turns out to be home venue for one of the teams, then they had distinct advantage over the other team, because of their support from the local audience. For the persons involved in m88 betting over football game, the first thing that must be taken into consideration the fitness levels of key players playing in the game. A trainer provides not only technical knowledge and skills of strategy, but also acts as the motivator for the group. By Appropriate methods of mental conditioning, the coach brings a positive attitude for players who work under him.

Soccer (or football match) has a huge following across the world. For the reason that of huge fan base, betting on Football game has become very common and has gain popularity over the passage of time. Also, Football match betting tips, are readily visible on web space, one can also see Web pages that has a number of experts able to predict the outcome of a particular match. The bettor may use these football betting tips before making a conclusion about how to consider a bet on a football game.

. If some key players are injured, then they will not be getting any chance in playing eleven. The football bettor must consider this information before; he bets his money over a particular team. Successful coaches have played in important role in deciding the fate of many teams. So, what are the things that should be taken into consideration while betting? Betting on football match requires a lot of basic research on the form of the team members or players, their playing status and fitness level.

The next thing the bookie or bettor has to study the venue for the football match. So, they are the key factors which influence the outcome of the game. Bookies or bettors can get information about the fitness of the players by searching online through some fitness related Web sites or news web sites (www.hhht888.com).

Besides these factors, the coaches of the football teams and their previous records in the managing various teams also play an important role, and bettors should pay due attention to them. If the player returns from injury then there are chances that it may not play as per his desired potential or in the same form

Infographic Shows Popularity of Sports Betting

Another 15% of individuals have gambled once within the past month. There are head-to-head bets, as well as totalizators, progressive parlays and if bets which have each grown in popularity.

While many of the gamblers within the United States are full-grown adults, there are many college students who take part in the activity as well. An additional 80% of high school students bet as well, though many are not legal fun88 gambling and is often amongst friends. The Super Bowl and NCAA March Madness tournament are two of the largest payouts in the United States.

As the niche of sports betting continues to rise in worldwide popularity, there appears to be no limit to the amount of money and effort put into the interest. Straight bets, or those that simply choose the winner, propositional bets, parlays, and future wagers are all among the top etting types. Twenty-five percent of males between 14-22 have placed a wager every month, with the NFL being the largest amongst the age group. And 3% had even placed wagers within the last day. The betting types all depended upon the individual, and spanned every sport from baseball to football, basketball to hockey, with horse racing being one of the most popular to bet on.

The infographic showed that several kinds of bets are placed most often. Top Betting Action has created a new infographic that is now showing just how the growth of sports betting (www.fun88no1.com) is thriving. The act of placing wagers on sporting outcomes has been popular for some time amongst friends and work betting pools, however, the growth in casinos and online has grown to huge unprecedented levels.

The American Gaming Association stated “Overall, Nevada’s legal sports wagering represents less than 1% of all sports betting nationwide. 19 by Top Betting Action detailed that information showing that college students are betting regularly on sporting events.. Nearly 67% of college students have bet in one way or another on sports. A tally of 44% of all 12th grade males have wagered at least once on sports.

Please click the SUBSCRIBE button at the top to receive email updates of new articles from Tomica Bonner.

Other than poker, sports gambling is the No. 1 sport in the United States. Based on the infographic, 65% of all Americans have gambled on sports at least once, while 30% have gambled on sports within the last year. In 2011, $2.88 billion was legally wagered in Nevada’s sports books; the National Gambling Impact Study Commission (NGISC) estimated that illegal wagers are as much as $380 billion annually.”

An infogrpahic released on Thursday, Sept

How the Sports Betting Line is Made by RJ Bell

Power ratings are the oddsmaker’s value of each team and are used as a guide to calculate a “preliminary” pointspread on an upcoming game.

The opening line is the first line created by the oddsmakers, which is then sent out to sportsbooks.

Once a game’s power rating based pointspread is determined, the oddsmaker will make adjustments to that line after considering each team’s most recent games played and previous games played against that opponent. By moving the line, sportsbooks can influence how the public bets on a particular game.

Divided action means the sportsbook is guaranteed a profit on the game because of the fee charged to the bettor (called juice or vig – typically $11 bet to win $10). We do this by drawing from past experiences and applying them to current situations.

Experts working for the individual books having a strong opinion on the game

Why the Line Changes

Moving the line is the oddsmaker’s effort to balance betting action, and often times such moves can have a major impact on a bettor’s decision. People think it’s much more complicated, but it’s not.”

Oddsmakers can also change the line depending on various event-related factors such as player injuries or weather. Each of these oddsmakers bring unique opinions, strengths and weaknesses to the process.

Las Vegas Sports Consultants (LVSC) is the world’s premier oddsmaking company and the most respected authority on making the lines. If an oddsmaker comes up with a preliminary line of USC -7, then an adjustment up to -7.5 or -8 would be made in response to the public’s expected USC bias. The power ratings are adjusted after each game a team plays. Reasons for such adjustments include:

A round-table discussion among the 4-5 oddsmakers involved in making the line for each sport is then conducted and a consensus line is decided upon by the Odds Director before it is released to the sportsbooks.

For example, if the pointspread on a game is 7 and most of the money is coming in on the underdog (taking the +7), sportsbooks will then move the number down to 6 ½ to try and attract money on the favorite.

“The #1 thing for us is to make a line for each game that creates good two-way action. Mike Seba is a Senior Oddsmaker at LVSC and has been making lines for the last six years. The purpose of these adjustments, like all line adjustments, is to more equally divide the betting action. Examples of non-game factors that would require an adjustment to a team’s power rating are key player injuries and player trades.

How the Opening Line Is Made

Contributed by:

The last step in the line-making process for each oddsmaker is taking one final look to determine whether or not the line “feels right.” This is where common sense and past experience with how games are bet enters into the picture. By necessity their approach is very research-oriented and concise, since with millions of dollars at risk there is little margin for error.

Once the opening line is released by LVSC, the individual sportsbooks decide if they want to make any adjustments before offering it to the public.

“You either have a passion for it or you don’t,” Seba said. This usually includes having up-to-date power ratings on each team. In doing so they attempt to make more attractive the team that is getting less action. If we’ve done that, we’ve done our job.”

Oddsmakers at LVSC are professional sports junkies who love what they do and would probably do it for nothing if you asked them, but they do get paid for it. Stated another way, they want to create a line that half the people find appealing to bet one way while the other half find it appealing to bet the other way (known as ‘dividing the action’).

Since the oddsmaker’s ultimate goal is equally dividing the betting action, public perception and betting patterns must be taken into account. “We’re not trying to pick the team that covers the spread, we’re trying to make it a coin flip, a tough decision (for the bettor).

“The main objective is that our clients get equal action on both sides,” Seba said. Also, adjustments are made after reading each team’s local newspapers to get a sense of what the coaches & players are thinking going into the game.

What Is the Line Trying to Accomplish?

Individual books having players who consistently bet with certain tendencies (such as an extreme bias toward favorites or toward a certain popular team like USC)

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

There is a common misconception that point spreads represent the oddsmakers’ prediction of how many points the favorite will win by. Of the 4-5 oddsmakers, generally the 2 most respected opinions are weighed more heavily by the Odds Director before he decides on the final line. Oddsmakers have to determine if any changes are necessary and send out an “adjusted line.”

Once betting begins, sportsbooks can adjust the line at any time. That is not the case at all – their intent is NOT to evenly split the ATS result between the teams; rather, their goal is to attract equal betting action on both sides. Obviously, if the line comes out a week ahead of the event (which is the case in football), there is much that could happen during the week leading up to the event that could affect the line. . In our extended interview, Seba explained that there are 4-5 oddsmakers assigned to make lines for each of the major sports (pro & college football and basketball; MLB, NHL, boxing, golf). Seba explained that it all starts with each oddsmaker creating a line on each game based upon their own personal approach. Of course there is an entire method to the madness on how the opening line is created. For example, the public might have heavy betting interest week after week on a popular college football team such as USC

Understanding The Sports Betting Line by Jane Wyvern

And if the Brewers win, your bet of $100 will earn you a payout which equals $135. So if you are a football fanatic and decide to bet on a baseball game it might look unfamiliar. By not shopping around it can cost you money. Search for the best deal, after all it is your money that is being spent so if one book has the Lakers at -3.5 and another has them at -3, then go where you stand to make the most profit.

In general, the sports betting line lets you know right away who is the favored and by how much. So they would put down a straight bet and then if their pick outpaced the spread, they would know what there return was going to be. It is a good idea to find some that you like so you will have at least three to fall back on. Shopping the sports betting lines is actually pretty easy now days. The bettor needs to know the betting line so he can pick the best one. It will also let you know how much you need to bet to obtain a certain payoff.

The sports betting line is a crucial part of all betting events because this is what bettors use to base their bids upon. This is simply due to the nature of the games. It also lets you know the odds for winning of each team, and the under, over, and on, points. If you can, shop the lines since they do vary some and can mean you might earn more money on your bets.

All sports betting lines aren’t the same however. Baseball is totally different and a lot of book services are even offering dime sports betting lines on baseball games.

As an example, a sports betting line for a baseball game may look like this: Brewers(+135) vs Cardinals(-145) Cardinals (-145) What all this means is that if the Cardinals win, your bet of $145 will earn you a payout of $100. There are many places to book your bets both online and offline and each place comes up with its own sports line. For example a baseball line will look quite a bit different from a football line. Some professional sports betters say that sports betting lines which go beyond the dime might wind up costing you a great deal of money especially if you place bets throughout the entire season. . So what exactly is a sports betting line?

So understanding that, you can see how important it is for a sports bettor to thoroughly understand sports betting lines and how it will apply to his specific wager. People who bet on football are usually trying to beat the point spread. This happens because each sports book needs to balance their own bets and may offer different odds.

Also you should be aware that different sports have different lines. You probably know that betting online is quite popular and easy to do, so going online is a good way to shop the lines

College football

Saperecom. p. 5.

^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.

^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.

^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.

^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012

^ a b “Timeline”. Several major rivalries date from this time period.

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_football&oldid=738179815″

Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain[1] Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.[105]

Harvard vs. The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.

Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.[128][129] The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932.[128] The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South.[130] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.[128][131]

Heisman Trophy

Maxwell Award

Walter Camp Award

Outland Trophy

Associated Press Player of the Year

Johnny Rodgers Award

Fred Biletnikoff Award

Lou Groza Award

Lombardi Award

University of Wisconsin football team, 1903

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. PMID 4903389.

^ Watterson, John (2001). At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.

Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)

Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. Chicago Tribune. 2012-05-14. 40: 717-724. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. Sports Reference.com. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ “College Football Games”. Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.

Bowl Championship Series

Main article: Bowl Championship Series

See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship

The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. “N.C.A.A. In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)

Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.[38]

November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival.[86] The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.[63]

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

1 History

1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.2 American college football

1.2.1 Early games

1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)

1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football

Skiing

Championships

Modern college football (since 1958)

The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.[146]

It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.[144][145] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.[132]

Volleyball

Men

Women

Events listed in italics have been discontinued.

Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. TheGame.org. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. May 8, 1900. The Walter Camp Foundation. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.

^ Triumph Books. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.[28]

Field hockey

Championship

On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football. Lawrence Daily Journal. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.

By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 24

^ “Marching Band History”. Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.[136][137]

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.[25]

9 Controversy

10 College football outside the United States

11 Awards

12 See also

13 References

14 Further notes

15 External links

15.1 Statistics

15.2 Rules

15.3 Maps

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. 201-209.

^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894″ (PDF). It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. Sports Publishing LLC. The History of Sports. In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).

Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).

“NCAA football” redirects here. Princeton Alumni Weekly. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.

South

College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. NFL.com. Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,”[37] broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.

In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. This college rule was added in 1988. Prescott Evening Courier.

^ “Ball Under The Jersey”. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. NCAA. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. open access publication - free to read

^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892″. CUBuffs.com reprint of Silver & Gold article. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.[62]

Meanwhile, John H. College Football Historical Society. Ralph Turtinen, ed. Retrieved April 12, 2011.

^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. 2007. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. Lawrence Journal-World. Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.[133]

Soccer

Men

Women

On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.[42] Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. Journals.humankinetics.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons.[92] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ Meacham, Scott (2006). Outing. The high school won 24 to 0.[59]

Map of CCCAA

Single-division sports

Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

Map of NCAA Division II

The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.

Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Mountain West

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.[79][80][81] In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.[77]

East

v

t

e

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.[23] This occurred on November 6, 1875.

Map of NAIA

In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. sporting event.[76]

The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying).[147] Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).

Cross Country

Men

Women

Ice hockey

Men

Women

On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game.[66][67] Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager.[68] Chicago won 24 to 4.[69] Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.[70]

Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.[96] The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”.[97] In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.[17]

The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. The Kingsport Times. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. Pennsylvania”. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. Sumner (1990). Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition.[87] The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. p. 14.

^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries.[101] Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. Retrieved 2008-04-06.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22

^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29

^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124

^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. McGill

College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.

Golf

Men

Women

College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. heisman.com. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. 2007. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.[64][65] Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.

Ice hockey

Men

College football outside the United States

See also: List of college football games played outside the United States

College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.[154][155] According to William E. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. April 27, 1924.

^ Dan McGugin (1907). However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.

Official rules and notable rule distinctions

See also: American football rules

The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. American athletes of the century”. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. Hickok Sports. WorldCat.org. Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.

Heisman shift

Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. p. 128.

^ Langum, David J. The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. It appears here in its original form:

History

See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football

Golf

Men

Women

The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made.[94] However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. “Why California Likes Rugby”. p. 95.

^ Ray Dozier. NCAA.com. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period’; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association’; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.[5]

Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148

^ Vancil (2000), pp 30

^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30

^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. December 27, 1892. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. Retrieved 2009-02-18.

^ Nelson (1994), pp 48

^ “Big Ten History”. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).

Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. It also became increasingly violent. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.[3]

In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. Rutgers University. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ Smith, R.A. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play.[121] The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.

Basketball

Men

Women

Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.

Division I FBS National Championship Games

Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff

Mid West

Volleyball

Men

Women

Softball

Championship/WCWS

Cross Country

Men

Women

Water polo

Men

Women

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. Retrieved 2011-10-06.

^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2011/11/26/football-is-corrupting-americas-universities-it-needs-to-go/

^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/sep/1/time-for-universities-to-punt-football/?page=all

^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.

^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014, http://chronicle.com/blogs/data/2014/05/16/coaches-not-presidents-top-public-college-pay-list/

^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/16/sports/errors-in-inquiry-on-rape-allegations-against-fsu-jameis-winston.html

^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013, http://www.cbssports.com/general/writer/gregg-doyel/23838595/its-time-pay-college-football-players—-changing-times-money-say-so

^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007, http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?id=2733624

^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/10/the-shame-of-college-sports/308643/

^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[93] Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.

The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.

Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University.[121] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history.[122][123] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927.[124] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. Football, the American intercollegiate game. In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. p. 232.

^ David M. 2007. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)

Don Hutson in 1940.

A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. Washington and Lee won 4-2.[38] Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out.[39] Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory.[61] In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. University of Illinois. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first.[63] As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. nfl.com. ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.

^ a b Libby, Brian. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. Heisman Trophy. There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.[159][160][161][162]

In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. 2006. Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.

Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. Bill Traughber. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). Kicked tries count as one point. But no record has been found of the score of this contest. “Changing seasons: Y. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.[147]

Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.

A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009

Basketball

Men

Women

The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 18

^ John S. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. MSN Encarta. Bernstein. being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. Nixon (1898-12-16). That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. British Columbia Rugby Union. University of Virginia Football Vault. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.

Bowl games

Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games

Awards

At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. Accessed 29 January 2007.

^ a b Parke H. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.[61] USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.[3]

Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.[6][7][16] As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.[16]

In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.[145][147] However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. Retrieved October 20, 2011.

^ John C. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. MSNBC. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16

^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. 2007. Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. Navy won 24-0.

Division I sports

The first USC football squad (1888). (1916-10-15). The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.

The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.

There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. Retrieved 2008-01-16.

^ A compilation of seven sources:

“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.[87]

Bowling

Women

A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).

An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.

Gymnastics

Men

Women

Men-DII

Women-DII

Softball

Championship/WCWS

Map of NJCAA

Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Ours, Robert M. Professional Football Researchers Association. Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.

It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.[48] On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. Los Angeles Herald. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.

Organization

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On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. Los Angeles Times. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922″.

^ “Alabama vs. Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895

^ Forgard, Benjamin. In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[3][4] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. Football’s Greatest Coaches. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. Stanford: Home of Champions. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.

The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. 11 (3): 33.

^ Goldsmith, A. The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.

Scoring table

Historical college football scoring[18]

Era

Touchdown

Field goal

Conversion (kick)

Conversion (touchdown)

Safety

Conversion safety

Defensive conversion

1883

2

5

4

-

1

-

-

1883-1897

4

5

2

-

2

-

-

1898-1903

5

5

1

-

2

-

-

1904-1908

5

4

1

-

2

-

-

1909-1911

5

3

1

-

2

-

-

1912-1957

6

3

1

-

2

-

-

1958-1987

6

3

1

2

2

1

-

1988-present

6

3

1

2

2

1

2

Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.

Expansion

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

– John C. A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.

On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48

^ Vancil (2000), pp 56

^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217

^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.

Football

Championship

Notable intersectional games

The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young.[77][78][79] Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. The number grew to eleven in 1976. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. The Research Quarterly. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.

A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.

The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ DeLassus, David. open access publication - free to read

^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.

Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. NCAA.org. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.[3]

Playoff games

1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan

Softball

Championship

CWS

^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions.[87] The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/sports/federal-judge-rules-against-ncaa-in-obannon-case.html

In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. Nelson. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.[125] The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. (2007). 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game.[87] California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. open access publication - free to read

^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. Each school played its own variety of football. Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911).[87] However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football.[87] With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small.[87] The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.

After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.

Awards

Hall of Champions

Conferences

Wrestling

Championship

Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history.[114] Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. Associated Press. The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910,[98] which still sets rules governing the sport.[98][99]

Rowing

Women

and championships

As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. Kansas Historical Quarterly. Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. ESPN. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.

References

Rifle

Championship

A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. “College Football in Kansas”. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ a b “The History of Football”. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically.[143] Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.[102] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.

Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.

Violence, formation of NCAA

The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. open access publication - free to read

^ Gardner (1996)

^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. February 19, 1911. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). The inaugural champion was Ohio State University.[152] The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.

Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. Harvard University Sports Information Office. During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.[35]

Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. Stanford: Home of Champions. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.[56] The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.

Growth of bowl games

See also: Bowl game

Growth of bowl

The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). Web.ebscohost.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. (1995). pp. A3.

^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. p. 53.

^ Becky Riddle, “Stoll Field”, ExploreKYHistory, accessed February 4, 2015, http://explorekyhistory.ky.gov/items/show/153.

^ Jim L. 111, Issue 8

Brian M. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. p. 15.

^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,[3][10][11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.[11] This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football.[12][13] In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.

1.6.2 Coaches of the era

1.6.2.1 Glenn “Pop” Warner

1.6.2.2 Knute Rockne

In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.[106] Chicago won 42-6. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

^ John Majors. “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. The Anatomy of a Game. Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns.[148] The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game.[149] The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.

Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:[150]If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. San Francisco Chronicle. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic.[59][60] Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. Retrieved 13 October 2011.

^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”. Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.[82] Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback.[83] The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.

This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.[153] However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. FOX Sports on MSN. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. 2006. The Boston Globe.

^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889″ (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.

^ Davis, Parke H. September 14, 1923.

^ cf. Journal of Sport History, Vol. August 17, 1999.

^ Alexander M. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “FBS College Football History”. p. D5.

^ a b “College Bowl Games”. Retrieved 2007-06-04.

^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18

^ Bennett (1976), pp 20

^ Lewis, Guy M. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out.[26] The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.[27]

November 1890 was an active time in the sport. Nixon, also the school’s second captain. This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton.[24] Princeton won both games 6 to 0. Deseret News. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.

The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. D. Accessed March 11, 2015

^ Will Perry (1974). Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. National Collegiate Athletic Association. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured.[71][72][73][74][75] On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.

Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

See also

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

^ “Parke H. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Stone. November 27, 2011. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988

^ Vancil (2000), pp 17

^ Vancil (2000) pp 22

^ “NFL History 1911-1920″. open access publication - free to read

^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. p. 4.

^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. p. 15 – via Google books. 17 (1).

^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. NFL.com. Associated Press. 16: 583. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. “Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.

^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).

^ “Grantland Rice”. pp. 285-311. USC Trojans. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. McGill football game

Soccer

Men

Women

On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.[43]

In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. p. 3.

^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. College Football Data Warehouse. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game’”. The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. p. 179.

^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”[110]

American football historian Parke H. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes.[142] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Rowing

Women

The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. National Collegiate Athletic Association. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.[95]

Division II

Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.

^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.[103] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909[7] and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.[104]

The 1893 Stanford American football team

Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.[91]

Volleyball

Women

American college football

Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. Retrieved March 24, 2015.

^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.

^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901″.

^ Mark F. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. p. 186. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.[30]

Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. Athens, Georgia: E. The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. Retrieved June 11, 2011.

^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. Tar Heel Times. This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.[32][33] The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.[34]

January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.

Tennis

Men

Women

Ice hockey

Men

Women

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.

The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. December 18, 1930. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. New York Times. 63: 742-750.

^ “History”. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. August 2008. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897.[50] He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.[21]Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.

Field hockey

Championship

Division III

In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.[141]

The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.

CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.

Team maps

Cross Country

Men

Women

Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game.[107] The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.[108] It ended in a 3-3 tie. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”[51][52]Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”[53]

2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions

3 Organization

4 Coaching

5 National championships

6 Team maps

7 Playoff games

8 Bowl games

8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games

As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat

Beach volleyball

Women

Southwest

Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. p. 64.

^ “Spotlight Athletics:”.

^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905

^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905

^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports.[112] Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. The University of Alabama. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. The Dallas Morning News. Boston Daily Globe. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. Professional Football Researchers Association. 2007. Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.[22]

Football

Championship

National Collegiate Athletic Association

NCAA

Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”

Further notes

“The Invention Of Football”. The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.

^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.

^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. dartmo.com. Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. April 16, 2007. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

Wrestling

Championship

Early games

Main article: 1869 college football season

The 1905 Utah football team. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. It was his last game as Clemson head coach.[57]

The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.

The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. How to Scout Football. The Strode Publishers. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Professional Football Researchers Association. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. College Football Data Warehouse. The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:

Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. Reading Eagle. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). December 30, 1894. Mcgill.ca. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. “The Birth of OSU Football”. (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. of C. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ “The History of Walter Camp”. The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. Retrieved 2007-03-21. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 20

^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”. Journal of Sport History. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. p. 3. It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal.[49] Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. November 27, 1941.

^ “Homecoming 2015″. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. pp. 11-13. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. Retrieved February 9, 2015.

^ Melvin I. p. 5. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association. The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “Series of rules changes approved”. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts.[14] The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.[15]

NCAA football official site

Composite television schedule of NCAA football games

Statistics

College Football at d1sportsnet.com

College Football at Sports-Reference.com

Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database

College Football Data Warehouse

Gridiron History

Rules

NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations

Maps

Google Map of Division II Football Programs

Map of FBS Teams and Conferences

Institutions

Athletic directors

Baseball

Championship

CWS

College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.[16]Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.[3]

On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. 18, No. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.[121][126]

Controversy

The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006). Joseph M. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. Rutgers Through The Years. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”[113]Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. p. 8. (1969). In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 39

^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45

^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172

^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171

^ Bennett (1976) pp 56

^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). 256 players are selected annually. “College Football”. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.[55]

On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South.[40] The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.[41]

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee.[20] The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. Pitt won 21-13.[109] On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. (Audio help)

More spoken articles

College Football Playoff

College athletics in the United States

College Football Hall of Fame

College football on radio

College football on television

Helmet stickers

Homosexuality in American football

List of defunct college football teams

List of defunct college football conferences

List of historically significant college football games

List of sports attendance figures

Sports injury

Pacific Coast

[...]

Fencing

Championships

Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.3 Scoring table

1.4 Expansion

1.4.1 East

1.4.2 Mid West

1.4.3 South

1.4.4 Southwest

1.4.5 Pacific Coast

1.4.6 Mountain West

Rise of the South

Map of NCAA Division III

Tennis

Men

Women

NCAA Division I Football Championship[151] – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.

NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.

After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. A (October 1913 – March 1914). From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. Lincoln Evening Journal. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.

If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. p. 21. The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.[58] The Sooners did not manage a single first down. 2001. Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. Football Immortals. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ McCann, Michael C. Minnesota won 2 to 0.[36] It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.

games 1930-2010[144]

Year

# of games

1930

1

1940

5

1950

8

1960

8

1970

8

1980

15

1990

19

2000

25

2010

35

2014

College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game

Harvard-McGill (1874)

Main article: 1874 Harvard vs. Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.[87][88][89]

Knute Rockne

The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

Coaching

Main article: Head coach § College football

National championships

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.

College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.

Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).

In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University,[84] and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900.[85] Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members.[46] The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.[47]

In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.[115][116] In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. Retrieved 2007-08-23.

^ “Knute Rockne”. November 7, 1886. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. Baker beat Kansas 22-9.[19] On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. 2007-02-14. The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. open access publication - free to read

^ DeLassus, David. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. 16 Stanford”. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.[134]

Contents

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901.[54] A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. October 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). Retrieved October 11, 2009.

“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.

^ Edwin Pope. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. ESPN.com. Journal of Sport History. Davis. “Southeastern Conference”. Smith. This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. p. 4.

^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.”[31] Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.[44]

American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). 2007. Retrieved 2008-10-06.

^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21

^ “ESPN.com: Top N. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.

One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”[111]Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss. ISBN 978-0873970556.

^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.[16]

and championships

Led by coach Fielding H. Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. 2.

^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.[138][139][140]

The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. The game was won by Tufts 1-0[9] Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898[90]

Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. Retrieved March 7, 2015.

^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.[131][135]

Trampoline

Championship

In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union.[87] At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide.[87] Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Atlanta Constitution. August 22, 1900. NFL Enterprises LLC. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.[16]

Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:

A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.”[120] Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.

Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. The New York Times. In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).

The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. April 15, 2011. Atlanta Constitution. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

1906 St. Augusta Computer Services. The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.

Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.

On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.[116]

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

College Football Playoff

Main article: College Football Playoff

^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.

^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.[127]

[...]

Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).

The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. ACTIVE.com. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. College Football Data Warehouse. Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. p. 52. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.

At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ Edmonston Jr., George. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.[3][6][7][8] The game was played at a Rutgers field. Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.”[156] Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them.[157] Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law.[158] Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. 1895. If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

^ “The History of Homecoming”. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. College Football Encyclopedia. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.[2]

At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).

Tennis

Men

Women

Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.

Coaches of the era

Glenn “Pop” Warner

The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910″. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.

Map of Division I (AA) FCS

Map of Division I (A) FBS

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.

1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year. William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt.[45] The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.

Field hockey

Championship

The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie.[29] The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. Tennessee Historical Society. Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.[16]

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. p. 70.

^ Gary Migdol. John Roberts.

^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). Retrieved 2016-01-24.

Columbia University was the third school to field a team. For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895″. He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ “1800s”. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.

Gymnastics

Men

Women

Colorado’s First football team in 1890.

From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.”[117] Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ “The History of the NCAA”. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. OSU Alumni Association. (1991). Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[100] Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).

1904 Vanderbilt team in action.

Basketball

Men

Women

Rowing

Women

1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA

1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

1.6.1 Rise of the South

1.6.1.1 Heisman shift

1.6.1.2 Notable intersectional games

Golf

Men

Women

Boxing

Championship

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. p. 12.

^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). Weyand (1962). The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history.[118] That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.[119]

Walter Camp: Father of American football

No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Wrestling

Championship

Bronko Nagurski Trophy

Dick Butkus Award

Jim Thorpe Award

Doak Walker Award

Campbell Trophy

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award

Home Depot Award

Ray Guy Award

John Mackey Award

Soccer

Men

Women

Football

FBS

FCS

1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)

1.8.1 Growth of bowl games

1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series

1.8.3 College Football Playoff

On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. Frank Suffel and Henry H. “Sport Slants”. November 22, 1893.

^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). p. 116.

^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.

^ George Allen

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NCAA tries to block sports betting in New Jersey

31, according to the complaint.

The governor’s office was not immediately available for comment.

They said sports gambling “would irreparably harm amateur and professional sports by fostering suspicion that individual plays and final scores of games may have been influenced by factors other than honest athletic competition.”

NEW YORK (CNNMoney) — The National Collegiate Athletic Association and some of the most prominent sports leagues in America are trying to keep sports betting out of New Jersey.

The NCAA, along with the National Football League, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League and Major League Baseball, filed a complaint in New Jersey federal district court on Tuesday to try to block state officials from authorizing sports gambling.

The document says the regulations will go into effect within the next two months, at which point casinos in Atlantic City and racetracks throughout the state can apply for sports gambling licenses.

The complaint targets N.J. The public comment period to protest the proposed regulations ends on Aug. Sports gambling is illegal in most states.

The complaint also names David Rebuck, assistant attorney general and director of the state’s Division of Gaming Enforcement, as well as Frank Zanzuccki, executive director of the New Jersey Racing Commission.

The complaint says the state is violating a federal law “enacted by Congress in 1992 in order to halt the spread of gambling on sporting events in the United States.” To top of page

The National Collegiate Athletic Association is trying to block New Jersey from allowing sports betting at Atlantic City casinos and at racetracks around the state.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association is trying to block New Jersey from allowing sports betting at Atlantic City casinos and at racetracks around the state.

“Gambling on amateur and professional sports threatens the integrity of those sports,” said the NCAA and the sports leagues in court documents.

First Published: August 7, 2012: 12:19 PM ET

. Gov. The Division of Gaming Enforcement published its proposed regulations for gambling at casinos and racetracks on July 2. Chris Christie for signing a law in January that permitted betting on college and professional games at casinos and racetracks

How to Bet on Baseball

Money Lines:

This is the first element we should analyze. So, as long as your chosen pitcher starts, you will have an active bet.. In the event of one of the listed pitchers not starting, then the wager is voided and the funds are returned to the player.

On the other hand, if you were to bet on a 20 cent line, you would be getting a +125 line on Milwaukee, which means fewer profits, and even though it doesn’t sound as a lot of cash, when it comes to losing 10 cents on every dollar during a full baseball season, losses can be considerable.

Specifying a pitcher: When you bet using this option, you need to choose the pitcher for the team you are betting on, the one for the other team might vary. In baseball, an experienced bettor will always go for the  “Dime Line”, which is a line with a ten cent difference between the favorite and the underdog (for example, a bet with the Angels  as favorites at -145 and the Brewers as underdogs at +135.

Pitchers:

A betting line on baseball will always depend largely on who the listed pitchers for the game are, and you are offered four different options:

Run Lines:

This one is very similar to a point spread; the difference is that in baseball you are dealing with runs and not points.

Totals:

Here you are betting on the combined number of runs accumulated by both teams at the end of a given game, and on baseball, runs on extra innings will also count  when the game has gone over nine innings.

Even though it is said that you can get better profits when wagering on baseball, most people will avoid placing wagers on this sport because the betting lines might appear a bit different than the regular point spread, and because we want to shed some light on the subject, we have created this article.

Team action: This option allows you place a wager that doesn’t depend on pitchers, although if there is a change in listed pitchers, the odds might vary.

Author’s Bio: 

Team action against a listed pitcher: This one is very similar to the previous one, the only difference is that here you need the opposite listed pitcher to start the game, the one for your chosen team can vary and you will still have action.

Michael Hill is an avid sports fan and a sports writer who has been in the betting and price per head industry for years. Michael writes about his experience and offers tips for other aspiring entrepreneurs who wish to make a living with sports bookmaking.

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mikehill010@gmail.com

Price Per Head

Listed Pitcher: When you are going to bet on a baseball game with listed pitchers, the ones listed for the two teams must start the game, and a pitcher is said to have started a match after throwing the initial pitch for his team

10-Year Rule To Become An Expert

My experience and practice in football totaled more than 10 years.

At least two creativity theorists (Csikszentmahalyi & Piirto) argue that creativity (with a big “C”) relies upon a certain degree of mastery over a domain in order for a creator to be successful. She is also one of the most widely-read people I know. Now, I am exploring “best practices” in fundraising and endowment campaigns as part of my Ph.D. In other words, one thing that may define people with a consistently high level of creative performance is the degree of expertise in a specific domain or discipline that has taken place over time, as well as practice and experience. I wrote a masters thesis on the “Metaphysics of Successful Grant Writing” which I turned into a teaching/learning book on grant writing. Morever, little has been written about the relationship of the expert with his or her master teacher along the continuum of creativity levels. In other words, a discoverer must be familiar with a discipline for deeper creative solutions to emerge.

Criticisms may come from people who say that everyone is creative (with a small “c”); unfortunately, this is beyond the scope of this essay. To contribute to the field and challenge myself, I created a 10-credit college grant writing certification program. “Practice, practice, practice!”

Author’s Bio: 

Performers who rely on a large amount of apparent spontaneity (i.e., orators and comedians, for example) actually do follow rules of impeccable timing and use expertise in voice modulation and intentional pausing, amongst other personal skills many that are not apparent to the novice (I would say here I’m at the ‘apprentice’ level). I received a great deal of public recognition after I gained performance mastery in the sport of football. In essence, they are the key holders to the secret code.

Confirmation for the 10-year rule also appears in the work of Csikszentmihalyi, specifically regarding the ‘incubation’ phase of creativity. Jean Houston. She once told me that in 20 years she compiled over 200 unpublished 400-page manuscripts on the shelves that she has used as scripts for her presentations. (1996). He implies that a certain amount of the patterns, knowledge and rules of a field like physics must be ‘internalized’ before deeper incubation can occur or creative, scientific breakthroughs be made. You can reach Phil at www.4Grants.Net and www.BrandYourNiche.com/blog.

Permission

In this essay, the 10-year rule will be introduced using arguments presented by Jane Piirto and Mihaly Csikszentmahalyi.

Phil Johncock is an award-winning author, educator and mentor. This is indeed a valid argument. Two years later, Coach Pessell elevated me to the varsity team as a sophomore to challenge me even more and bring my fledgling skills to a higher level. Criticisms may also come from those who associate creativity with spontaneous, free flowing improvisations. For example, one of the greatest public speakers that I’ve ever heard is Dr. Creativity: flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

Support for the 10-year rule may be found in the expertise (or eminence) hypothesis presented by Piirto that “every field and domain of knowledge in which creativity can be demonstrated has novice levels, apprenticeship levels, expert levels, and special jargons” (15). One of the foundations for her speaking is a scripted text that represents countless hours of research and analysis (also her genius) of a wide range of subjects, from the new field of social artistry to spiral dynamics to ancient mystery school practices. “How do you get to Carnegie Hall?” the adage goes. She employs a great deal of spontaneity and humor along with wildly evocative and energizing lexicon (i.e., universal self, core tapping, pollination, social artistry, passion for the possible, lure of becoming) launched with such delicacy and impeccable timing. One of the primary criticisms of the 10-year role – namely the spontaneous nature of creativity – will also be addressed. The first happened during high school. In short, what role does a master teacher plays in producing creative genius and progressing from novice to expert? What is it that allows for mastery to take place? One explanation, says Piirto, is that “master coaches and teachers have codified the knowledge necessary for mastering the domain” (15). Mastery is also needed, they claim, for creative products to be widely accepted and recognized by others, especially critics. He argues that it is impossible “for a person who has not mastered a domain or been involved in a field” (102) to take full advantage of the incubation phase. I basically documented “what works” in grant writing and began teaching others what I knew. I also participated in pick-up games and organized sports like baseball and basketball with neighbors for more than five years. Nonetheless, exploration of the levels of creativity (i.e., novice, apprenticeship, expert) has largely evaded theorists. Finally, it was Coach Pessell’s adaptation of the Ohio State Buckeye’s power-I offense that created a structure through which my talent flourished and shined. He is an authority in how to get grants, scholarships and fundraising, as well as an authority in finding and branding your niche, completion, and working at home. Starting in 1988, I wrote (and management) 48 out of 52 successful grant proposals (92+% success rate). There are few rules for creativity, they claim. However, even with improvisational genius, some degree of expertise and rule-following is required as a foundation beyond “practice, practice, practice.”

Personally, there are two examples of the 10-year rule that I can apply to my life personally and professionally.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. I got involved in school-supported football at that point (8th grade). That challenge ignited a competitive drive for me to move forward. Understanding creativity. (2004). Finally, two personal examples will be used to support the 10-year rule.

Finally, the second example of the 10-year rule happened to me professionally. This area is easy for me, I’m confident speaking and writing, and my contributions are almost immediately well-received largely because I enjoy grant writing/management and teaching experience of more than 12 years.

We’ve all heard performance artists say how much they studied music and practiced with an instrument like the guitar before they were able to play more advanced classical pieces and develop their own unique style. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press, Inc.

You are granted permission to use this article in your blog, ezine or newsletter in its entirety (including references and bio). My students have since gone on to generate over $1.2 billion in funding in 2.5 years. She relies on her extensive expertise in hypnosis, theater, group dynamics, and comedy (her father was a comedy writer for Bob Hope and the creator of the famous “Who’s On First?” skit). These may not be apparent on the surface to a novice but they represent many decades of practice and experience.

References

Piirto, J. Piirto calls this the “10 year rule.” “Any person,” she claims, “must have been working in a domain for a minimum of 10 years in order to achieve international recognition” (15).

To support the role of master teachers presented earlier, I would like to appreciate my high school football coach, Fred Pessell, for challenging me in middle school to be a better running back than Ralph Ryan, a classmate. I received many accolades (i.e., all-state running back, school and state (Michigan) records-setter, and Hall of Fame athlete) as a result of my performance during my senior (12th) year. Although I had been playing organized football for only five years, I had watched a lot of football on TV previously

A Beginners Guide to Navigating the Casino Without Losing Your Shirt

When you enter any casino for the first time, head to the players club booth and join. Each number corresponds to a specific symbol on the display. In some games, all the players on a group, or “bank” of machines might share in a bonus round. In the short run, anything can happen. Over the long run, the casino will win because of how the games are structured.

Casinos offer a variety of games to entice everyone from those dreaming of a life-changing jackpot to people simply enjoying a night out.

READ: The Downsides of Winning a Powerball Jackpot

READ: 6 Mistakes to Avoid When Paying Off Debt

“You know what you should do now?” the dealer asked, barely suppressing a smile as he prepared to deliver the punch line. In other words, for every $100 put into machines throughout the casino, the machines return an average of about $90 over the long run. The machine itself is the entertainment. The card makes you eligible for offers of discounted or free food, hotel rooms or other amenities based on the amount of your play. Take what you are comfortable spending. Sure, some players will win big. Slot players don’t have to worry about making the “right play” or doing something that could affect other gamblers. She pulled out three $20 bills and gingerly placed them on the felt, confessing to the dealer this was her first time playing the game.

Poker is popular, but it differs from all other games because you play against other gamblers rather than against the house. This was a friendly table, he said, and he or the other players would be happy to help a novice. They want to gamble but they’re not exactly sure what to do.. The answer depends on your own assessment of how much you’re willing to spend for a night at a casino. Casinos make more money from slots than from any other game. Some machines let you choose the value of a credit, such as 25 cents, 50 cents, $1 or $2. Casinos have evolved into one of the country’s premiere entertainment options. Many are tied to popular movies, TV shows or musical artists – think “Lord of the Rings” or “Pawn Stars” or Dolly Parton – or even games such as Wheel of Fortune, Monopoly and Battleship. They’re generally easy to learn and play.

Many books and Web sites teach basic strategy for blackjack. The RNG’s sole function is to spit out groups of numbers. “Run! Run for the hills while you’re ahead!”

The black-haired woman nervously thumbed through her purse as she took the end seat at the blackjack table. A cynical adage holds that casino executives figure that whatever you bring through the door is theirs – you just happen to be holding it for the moment. You should be mentally prepared to lose it all.

One question all casino visitors ask themselves is how much money to take. It’s all pure luck, as opposed to skill games such as blackjack and poker. The goal is to beat the dealer. A rule of thumb is that the higher the base denomination, the less the house advantage. Dollar machines pay out more than quarter machines, and quarter machines pay out more than nickel machines.

Blackjack is the most popular card game by far. Never bet with money you need for the mortgage or medical bills. As a rule of thumb, the easier a game is to play, the higher the house edge.

Blackjack, if you take a few minutes to learn the basic strategy of when to hit or stand.

Video Poker, if you make the effort to look for good pay tables and learn simple guidelines for which cards to keep and throw away.

Baccarat, including the “mini” form found on the main casino form.

Craps, a game that looks more complicated than it actually is.

A penny machine is a misnomer. Those who follow basic strategy can reduce the house edge to 0.5 percent or less, making it the closest thing to an even-money game the casino offers. So if the dealer’s up-card is weak — especially a Four, Five or Six — it’s better for a player to stand on a “stiff” hand of 12 through 16 than trying to hit and get closer to 21.

Slot machines are the easiest and most popular form of casino gambling. The casino gets its cut by collecting a “rake,” typically $4 or $5, out of every pot.

When you plan a casino trip, figure out how much you’re willing to spend for that night’s entertainment. That can range from a penny to several hundred dollars. Smart gamblers find a game they enjoy and learn the strategies that reduce the house edge as much as possible.

“No problem,” he assured her. At that game, the player with a blackjack gets paid only $12 for a $10 bet. Since blackjacks will come at the same rate at each type of game — once in about every 21 hands — playing at 6-to-5 table costs you about $6 an hour.

Games with a low house edge include:        

Before you put money into a slot, check the machine’s display to see how much one credit is worth. Those include Three Card Poker, Let It Ride Blackjack Switch and Spanish 21. Her blackjack fling started with a victory.

If you find yourself ahead after a couple of hours of fun, then remember the dealer’s advice for the nervous blackjack player: Run for the hills!

READ: Tips and Tricks for Traveling to Las Vegas

The challenge for bettors is to find a game that they enjoy and that has a house edge they’re comfortable with. With slots, the outcome is determined by a computer program called a random number generator, or RNG. Some want a four-star restaurant and a live musical.

The house advantage on slots can vary by casino, but typically it’s about 10 percent. Slots can account for 70 percent or more of the money casinos make from gambling.

However, that doesn’t mean you should just throw your money away on long shots. If you “bust” by going over 21, you lose even when the dealer also busts, because the dealer is the last to act. If you go out for dinner and a show, you know how much that’s worth to you. Slot players put their cards into the machine; table game players present their cards to the dealer.

Regardless of what you might hear elsewhere, there is no strategy for winning at a slot machine. The vast majority won’t. The number combination generated at the instant you hit the spin button determines what symbols will be displayed and whether you win or lose.

One of the built-in advantages for a player is that blackjacks traditionally pay 3-to-2, or $15 for a $10 bet. A few favorites: www.WizardOfOdds.com, www.bj21.com, www.BJInsider.com, and authors Stanford Wong, Henry Tamburin and Arnold Snyder.

Finding yourself amid the thousands of games, dealing with the noise, lights and other casino distractions, and ogling the vast amounts of money and chips can intimidate anyone.

Just bear in mind that you’re there to have fun.  

Many people making their first casino trip or trying out a new game are like that uneasy blackjack player. Some games have surround-sound chairs for what manufacturers call “immersion” gaming.

Casinos also offer a variety of “carnival games” that are variations of poker and blackjack. She put out the $10 minimum bet and was dealt a two-card 20 for her first hand. That’s not right. Players have the option of hitting or standing, while the dealer must follow specific rules — generally, he must hit if the total is 16 or less and stand with a total of 17 through 21. The process is simple: Push a button; win or lose; repeat. Many players mistakenly think the object of blackjack is to get a hand as close as possible to a total of 21 without going over. Although each credit is worth only one cent, players can wager as much as $3 a spin by playing multiple pay lines and more than one credit per line.

Whether you’re a beginner or a veteran, the most important fact about a casino is this: The house always has the edge, no matter what game you play. You could hit a big jackpot or you could lose your buy-in within a few minutes.

Slot machines appeal to people looking for a pressure-free way to pass the time. Some folks are comfortable eating at a chain restaurant and catching a matinee. Use your players club card whenever you gamble there. Some casinos offer games that pay 6-to-5 for a blackjack. Slot manufacturers spend millions of dollars to make machines that entice people play longer. Never play them. About 27 percent of Americans visit a casino at least once a year, according to the American Gaming Association, and that number grows as legalized gambling continues to expand beyond the traditional centers of Las Vegas and Atlantic City